UKWIR currently manages over 70 projects for UK Water companies. To enable us to continue meeting our members' requirements, UKWIR requires a high quality, excellent value, innovative service from our contractors.
The projects proposed for next year's programme (see list below) will need to be delivered effectively and efficiently within UKWIR's tightly controlled budget. Contractors who are interested in bidding for any of the new projects should click on the 'Interested' link connected to that project's details and complete the form there. This form will automatically be passed to the relevant Project Manager. The deadline for Expressions of Interest is 31 December 2013 -Expressions of Interest will not be accepted after this date.
NB Owing to the large number of expressions of interest received, these may not be acknowledged. Completion of the form does not guarantee that the contractor will be invited to tender for the work.
A Review of Trade Effluent Allowances and Standard Strengths
The objective of the work is to review the current standard trade effluent domestic allowances to ensure that they remain appropriate and if necessary derive a new set of standard allowances. The review and subsequent output will provide the industry with a set of domestic allowances that will have been based on a sound methodology and up-to-date information. This will ensure that any future challenge to these allowances can robustly defended.
An additional objective is to review the basis of calculating trade effluent production and evaporative allowances with the aim of providing guidance for use by water company staff to assess and verify the allowances claimed by trade effluent dischargers.
A further objective would be to review the basis of deriving standard strengths with the aim of proposing a set of standard strengths for potential adoption by the industry.
Assessing individual leakage detection efficiency
The project should consider a number of ALC detection efficiency assessment techniques. Such approaches could include ascertaining a volumetric saving per individual (which would need to take into account other factors such as natural rate of rise (NRR) ), or a method for scoring/ranking individuals with contextual reference to the DMA characteristics/difficulty of finding leakage in the DMAs they have worked in. Ways of possibly incentivising the individual Leakage Technicians, to improve performance, could also be explored. The project should outline a reporting methodology that concludes which approach (of possibly hybrid of approaches) is best, and how this methodology can be implemented within the UK Water Companies.
How can the performance of active leakage control inspectors be fairly assessed, taking into account contextual factors that may influence performance, but are outside of the control of the inspector. Can a performance metric be developed which may also incentivise better performance from leakage inspectors, thus improving leakage detection efficiency.
The project will involve: • An assessment /review of current ALC performance metrics employed across the water companies • A thorough understanding of what contextual factors could influence ALC performance. • The development of an existing, or creation of a new performance metric that will satisfy the requirements of this proposal. • Testing of the chosen metric (trial) in the UK water company context. • Further development of chosen metric if required following the test. • Recommendation of the methodology to be used in the UK.
Assessing the structural condition of PVC pressure mains
The project would deliver the early stages of the research work necessary to support the later development of a non-destructive method of determining the condition and life expectancy of PVC pipes in service in the water industry.
How to adapt the destructive methods currently used to identify the condition of PVC pipes to enable a more cost effective and economic approach? What other methods could be applied and what further development work is required to make them into a viable proposition?
The project will involve development of the methodology for assessing the level of deterioration within a PVC pipe network. Consideration of the techniques employed now and identification of alternative techniques which could eventually lead to a non destructive testing approach. Identification of the stages in development required to achieve this goal.
Best practice for quantifying load from intermittent discharges
Explore techniques for quantifying intermittent loads from wastewater assets discharging into surface water bodies. Doccument best practice approach, in agreement with all stakeholders.
Identify and quantify the significance of key areas of uncertainty in model results in relation to different types and sources of data used and to recommend ways to reduce these uncertainties through additional data acquisition and uncertainty modelling techniques.
This project will involve: - Review of approaches used in previous modelling projects, and those referenced from other agencies. - Validation of river water quality models that have included significant elements of intermittent discharges using field work.
Broader Economic Justification of Sewerage Schemes
The project will deliver a Best Practice Guide for identifying and quantifying broader economic benefits and will enable W&SCs to better justify capital sewerage schemes to potential partners and to OFWAT
1 ) What are the benefits of sewerage schemes to the wider community, e.g. the benefits to the local and national economy? 2) What are the inter-generational benefits of sewerage infrastructure? 3) How should these benefits be valued? 4) How should they be accounted for in our economic assessments? 5) Is the current failure to do so stifling investment in sewerage infrastructure? 6) Is the current failure to do so leading to unsustainable solutions? 7) How should the basis of our economic assessments change?
Coastal and estuarine bacteria loads for source apportionment
Coastal and estuarine sediments can be significant reserves of bacteria and viruses that are mobilised by big tides and weather. Getting the source apportionment right for coastal and estuarine waters is going to be important for understanding the behaviour of faecally derived micro-organisms in these environments and relative importance of the different sources to bathing waters and shellfish waters compliance and shellfish hygiene standards. We should attempt to quantify bacterial and virus release/resuspension from sediments and quantify these as a diffuse source when building models. The outcome will be more accurate modelling of coastal and estuarine waters for shellfish and bathing water compliance. Better management and utilisation of shellfish beds by the shellfish industry.
What numbers of faecally derived bacteria and viruses are present in sediments? Which sediment characteristics influence faecally derived microbial loading and survival? How does re-suspension affect the viability of the organisms?
This project will involve: Literature review and desk studies. Sampling and analysis of sediments around shellfish and bathing waters.
Customer Education Strategy for Wastewater
A full review and evaluation of Customer Education campaigns from the Water Industry; Review and evaluation of Customer Education/Change programmes from related industries eg other utilities, Local Authorities etc; Cost/benefit and sustainability of campaigns compared with other possible interventions; Guidance on the most successful Customer Education interventions for future strategy; Best Practice in the development of the most cost effective Customer Education interventions including product labelling and flooding mitigation measures. Guidance on development of a more effective non-flushable product labelling system.
Demand Side Energy Management
The UK energy mix is changing. A larger proportion of intermittent renewable generation (such as wind) is and will require market response to react to changes in generation, this includes providing incentives for demand side energy management and punishment mechanisms for not being flexible. Implementing demand side management would reduce risk exposure by responding to markets as a virtual generator, scheduling load and generation assets in the short/medium term. We need to understand the potential for demand side energy management in the UK water industry and the challenges and constraints. This would enable the further work to create a future where the industry operates very dynamic and flexible processes or assets. For example on a STW the aeration could be ramped down or switched off from 4-7 (peak prices), liquors stored for treatment at night. The CHP would be swtiched off at night and heat stored in buffer tanks or the digesters themselves , the CHP would then run at full output 4-7. The sewer network could be monitored and controlled better so as to allow similar load management practice.
How much power demand can be reduced and generated (MW)? What approach can be applied to understand risks associated with operating processes with more flexibility. Which areas of the industry should be targeted and prioritised? What modifications might be required? What additional control or monitoring would be required? What response time could be achieved? What are the benefits now and in the future considering the energy mix going forward?
Economics of Infiltration Reduction
The project proposes an investigation of: a) potential sources of groundwater inflow wherever or whatever they may be; b) techniques for preventing these inflows; c) the costs and benefits of prevention techniques; d) the costs and benefits of mitigation techniques (e.g. seasonal tankering and overpumping; e) the costs and benefits of other management techniques (e.g. permanent seasonal overflows); in order to provide guidance on the best economic strategy for managing groundwater related sewer flooding and pollution problems.
) what are the potential sources of groundwater inflow into sewerage networks? b) how can they best be identified and quantified? c) what techniques can be employed to prevent them? d) what are the costs and benefits associated with thes prevention techniques? e) what mitigation techniques are possible (e.g. tankering and overpumping to watercourses)? f) what are the costs and benefits associated with these mitigation techniques. g) what other managemnt techniques are possible (e.g. groundwater lowering, permanent seasonal overflows)? h) what are the costs and benefits associated with other management techniques? i) how does the industry assess the best economic approach, subject to environmental and public health considerations, in a particular scenario?
Exploring attitudes and perceived barriers to use/recycling of biodegradable products containing sewage sludge
The project would need to provide the following outcomes:- Look at what co-digestate and co-composting use schemes are already in use/approved around the world. How were they approved, what is the regulatory position/authorisation. What level of treatment/risk mitigation is required. What standards or restrictions to use are applied (eg. quality, use etc.). Collate the scenarios of interest to the industry, assess if the regulatory position/ authorisation is clear, summarise research that has already been completed, assess potential risks and advise on mitigation of these risks. Assess regulatory, stakeholder and public opinion of use of biodegradable products contining sewage sludge, draw out concerns to be addressed. Develop and deliver a programme of monitoring to gather data associated with any risks or concerns where we do not already have a wealth of water industry data.
Finding Alternatives and Using Less Shortage Risk Chemicals in Water Treatment
The objective is to carry out research into the long term strategic risk from chemical shortages, and replacing chemicals identified as having a shortage risk with alternative chemicals. Also investigate any opportunities for onsite generation of chemicals (from more strategically reliable raw materials) or reducing chemical use.
Identify potential options for substitution of chemicals to utilise raw materials with a lower environmental impact, more certain availability, lower energy requirements for production. Identify technologies which have the potential to provide the next generation of treatment processes Screen candidate technologies and develop a short-list for Eng D or similar project / Identify potential collaborators for pilot production of chemicals or small scale treatment plant.
Holistic Management of Supply Networks
understand current technological solutions, develop comms/data management strategies and recommend management systems for water supply networks - understand whole life/totex benefits of running real time smart networks
- assessment of key technologies - learn from global water industry and other industries best approaches to managing systems data etc..
Identification of treatment conditions which minimise DBP formation
To provide operational advice to the Industry by identifying the process conditions which minimse the formation of the selected DBPs and confirming these by pilot or bench scale trials.
Develop a comprehensive list of DBPs and the relative significance of these in terms of likelihood and toxicity. Define the water quality and treatment factors influencing formation of a selection of the most significant DBPs will be identified. Develop an integrated into a decision support process for DWSP implementation
Using a combination of bench/pilot scale studies, literature reviews and the examination of through plant data from water companies: Develop a comprehensive list of DBPs and the relative significance of these in terms of likelihood and toxicity. Define the water quality and treatment factors influencing formation of a selection of the most significant DBPs will be identified. Develop an integrated decision support process for DWSP implementation
Learning from the first cycle of WFD
The proposal is to catalogue what has worked well, i.e. cost-effective measures; and what has not worked well in the River Basin Management Plans so far. The research should be pan-European and ideally shared with European colleagues. We should be looking to see how the responsibility for environmental improvement has been apportioned to water industry, and whether other, more effective solutions are available from the European experience that we could use in the second cycle of plans.
What measures to deliver 'good status' have worked well in other European countries in the first cycle of WFD? are there any particular circumstances (geography, standards, delivery methods etc.) that have led to these sucesses? What lessons can we learn from Europe about what has not worked in the first cycle? How are other European countries tracking WFD outputs? How cost-effective are the measures being used in other countries? What measures that would naturally befall water companies in the UK are being delivered by other sectors across Europe?
Modelling pesticide risk for different land management practice scenarios on raw water quality, including development of an intervention toolkit.
The project should develop a UK methodology or framework for identification of metaldehyde (and other high risk actives)hot-spots. The scope of activity breaks down into 4 main areas: Targetting: The project should identify an approach which adds value to the existing catchment characterisation approaches water companies are using, and an initial phase of the project should include a review of the currently available data sets, tools, models and approaches to establish what is already available
Data/Modelling Needs - The project should then build on this foundation to produce an output that allows greater targeting of measures. This will include the review of the EA "Four Scope project" and outputs from the UKWIR Project DW14B (Evidence Review of Strategies for Managing Metaldehyde).
Intervention trials: - Identify a number of potential interventions for the mitigation of risks to raw water quality, e.g. changes in sprayer nozzle type; pellets with different active ingredient concentrations; types of pellets used adjacent to watercourses or on field edges; different product dose rates; location of pesticide applications in relation to Water Treatment Works intakes; changing crop type in high risk areas; widespread uptake of improved farmyard pesticide handling infrastructure; agricultural polymers for water/pesticide absorbance prior to entering the water course; etc,. Scenario test these at a sub-catchment or ideally field level, calibrated with empirical water quality data, to understand the relative impact and optimum mix of localised changes in land and farmyard management practices, on concentrations of the pesticides at works intakes.
Intervention toolkit: Develop an agreed matrix of interventions and their leads which will allow the most effective working between Water Companies, Regulators and representatives of agriculture, and allow more effective spatial targetting of agri-advice messages. This should focus on specific ‘high risk’ actives such as metladehyde & OSR herbicides, especially those where current treatment is less effective and the focus is on reducing concentrations at intakes.
Not all particle are the same - a review of the hazard posed to disinfection process by various turbidity types
By reference to the output of a number of key treatment processes the project will identify the major types of turbidity which pass into the final stage of disinfection, and by bench top trials identify differences in shielding, disinfectant demand, and disinfection rate.
What risk is posed by turbidity to the disinfection and ultimate safety of water
Desk study - identify key sources of turbidity in water, understand their make up and assess the potential to shield microorganisms or to adversley impact disinfectant residuals/irradiation intensity Bench trials to identify the impact of a range of turbidity types on bacterial survival
Planning for the Mean or Planning for the Extreme?
We want to establish quantifiable linkages between extreme weather events and its impact, both operational and asset related, on service. This will allow the research outputs on future climate projects to be translated into projections of future change in operational costs and investment requirements.
The improved understanding of these links will also help quantify the vulnerability of service to wider extreme weather events. We are unlikely to be able to provide the infrastructure that is able to deal with such extremes, but we will need to plan for and cost the range of emergency adaptation measures including some that will be part of contingency planning. This represents improvements to resilience built more around short-term recovery measures rather than the longer-term asset adaptation measures that companies may have focussed on.
The key elements of the proposed research project are as follows: Identify known linkages between weather and measured performance. Describe the conceptual linkages between weather and the measured performance, where appropriate using combined weather impacts, eg days since last rainfall, antecedent temperature and sunshine hours, current temperature. Gather ‘time-stamped’ data and geographical data from companies on measured performance. Establish hypotheses for causal relationships between measured performance and current and/or antecedent weather. Get weather data for the location. Test hypotheses, developing standardised algorithms between weather and company performance measures, where appropriate. Understand if current definitions of severe weather are appropriate in sewer design.
Post PR14 Customer Engagement, Communication and Education
Learn from engagement work that has been carried out previously Determine preferred ways to engage/communicate/educate customers about specific issues Create a reference resource for companies to make use of in determining what and how to engage
Extract lessons from existing customer engagement activities/mechanisms, recognising and agreeing common issues, themes and/or opportunities from experiences gained. Create a reference source for companies to refer to incorporating engagement activities for the PR and SRC. Consider the approach that should be taken in how to engage with, communicate or educate customers to get across some of the key industry messages eg climate change responsibilities, the value of water, leakage etc Develop a common language for companies to use in engaging customers in these areas
Proposed amendment of hazardous properties in the Waste Framework Directive and its impact on sludge
A review of hazardous properties in sewage sludge against the proposed criteria to understand what consequences the changes have for sludge to agriculture, in particular as regards limit values under other EU legislation.
This work will:
• Inform the UK Water Industry on the process and content of the European review • Quantify the risk of sludge being classed as hazardous • Help us to react to the proposed amendment before criterias are finally decided • Help us compose our lobbying position on the proposed criteria.
• What is happening at a European Level - process and content of the review? • Do the properties of sewage sludge meet the proposed hazardous waste criteria (especially HP14 on ecotoxicity)? • What is the impact on the volume of sewage sludge and the treatment routes for it?
Rainfall Intensity for Sewer Design
The objective of the project is to develop a science-led approach to the design of sewer systems that incorporates projected changes in climate to cover: Determine the link between sewer performance and weather in terms of common serviceability measures Identify in generic terms the climate we will face in future expressed in terms of the mean and extreme values for weather variables such as temperature, rainfall, sunshine hours, wind velocity etc. Ideally this should be in the form of a probability distribution function. However, the numerous scenarios for future weather might dictate that a range of such distributions were needed. Express these in terms of serviceability impacts. Use weather records from other countries to find locations that match today the future projected weather (or range of weathers) here in the UK. For sewer design the variable we are most interested in is rainfall, though others (such as snowfall and snowmelt) might also be of interest. Use the weather data record in these countries to identify the extreme events in which we are interested. This may be in the form of a range. For example, we might want to know the rainfall intensity for different storm durations with a return period of say 1 in 20; 1 in 40; 1 in 80 etc to allow us to understand the sensitivity of the measure variable with its probability of occurrence. Draw conclusions and make recommendations for future design, again taking into account the uncertainty of future outcomes and how the choice of base scenario might impact on this.
If possible we should also look at how the move towards a more integrated view of drainage extending beyond sewerage systems, to include surface, highway and river drainage systems might impact on these design standards.
This is a challenging area to resolve. It may produce a range of potential outcomes that companies will have to consider when setting risk appetite and serviceability objectives. However, it is believed that it will provide improved insight into the challenge that we will face and should allow for the resilience of different design solutions to be more clearly demonstrated. It should produce more robust outcomes than the application of a simple uplift on standards we apply at present.
Real-time integrated modelling, monitoring and control
The proposed research would review existing approaches and technology to modelling and monitoring and control across the wastewater system.
Develop and outline an ideal modelling technique/ approach for use in real time management and control scenarios.
Identify gaps in current technology and modelling capability that prevents the implementation of the ideal technique/ approach.
Provide recommendations for future technology/modelling developments and operating models needed to allow implementation of the ideal approach.
Remote Sensing for Catchment Management - Phase 2
The project will build on the outputs of the earlier UKWIR project work and develop these techniques further, especially in relation to the monitoring of extensive upland catchments. This will be undertaken alongside a more detailed review of the other imagary types available. At the conclusion of the project the Industry will have a matrix / toolbox of the most appropriate techniques for particular circumstances and the most effective way of deploying them
Renewable Energy in the Water/Wastewater industries – from current lessons to future contributions.
The objectives are: • To collect project specific, technology specific information from renewable energy projects from water companies including: - Technologies - Scale of development - Project development - Impacts upon treatment and network operation; - Environmental impacts; - Successes and benefits realised; and, - Present the information in an easy to view format
This will allow the water industry to more effectively: • Consider all appropriate opportunities; • Understand the likely risks and ways to mitigate against them; and, • Understand the scale at which solutions are feasible and provide the best ‘Return on Investment’.
The contractor should be experienced and knowledgable in the development of small scale ( < 5MW) renewable schemes . The contractor will be knowledgable about environmental engineering and the assets typically managed by water and wastewater companies . The contractor will need to indentify the technologies developed in the industry Identify the scale of development - both capacity ( kW) and generation ( MWh ) Acquire project/programme information around timescales and project life Build a generic risk register for technology type in water sector Build a financial model to show ( anonomised ) capex and opex curves based on capacity and generation in water sector
Submersible Pump Universal Auto Coupling System
Physical prototypes of a submersible pump universal auto-coupling system (ACS) to enable different makes of submersible pump to be retrofitted to existing sewage pumping stations. If successful, a common ACS standard could be defined led by the UK water industry leading to manufacture of the universal ACS. This could result in improved competition and lower costs for submersible pumps.
The contractor needs to demonstrate to what degree that a universal auto-coupling system ACS)can be feasible. The factors that determine the compatibility of auto-coupling different manufacturer's submersible pumps should be identified. Importantly the results from testing prototype ACSs in a working environment are required and as a consequence will a universal ACS be potentially viable?
The application of Process Intensification in the Water Industry
The major process units for both water and wastewater would be assessed as to whether it would be viable to instigate a major effort to intensify these processes with the aim of reducing their capital cost, embedded carbon and overall operation cost. 1. identify treatment steps and potential technologies and create flow diagrams 2. identify opportunities for intensification and project constraints 3. seek advice on the performance and reliability of the intensified technologies 4. review the advantages, disadvantages, operating experience and select most effective technologies
To achieve this, there is a need to understand the constraints of the intensified process. If the design of the overall process can eliminate the constraints, then the intense process can be used effectively.
In principle, in any process, Process Intensification (“PI”) can be used to reduce costs, reduce hazards, provide new products and enhance quality control. However, the potential for intensified process technologies in the water industry has not yet been studied systematically. This project aims to remedy this situation by producing a study comparing and contrasting available PI technologies for both upstream and downstream processing, for water wastewater and sludge. The development of wastewater processes and technologies has, during the 20th century, included many innovations that may be considered as intensifying treatment techniques when compared to the relatively passive ‘sewage farm’, the predecessor to modern sewage treatment. More recently a number of technologies have become available to increase treatment capacity within more compact treatment units. Examples of these are membrane bioreactors (MBR), moving bed bioreactors (MBBR), integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) and more recently the Nereda aerobic granular sludge process. Perhaps the next few decades will see the development and commercial application of anaerobic treatment systems in treating municipal wastewater at low temperatures. Whilst these technologies do offer many advantages, it may be expected that other opportunities may be exploited in the near and medium term future, with possibly significant advances to be realised in the longer term. Upstream there are opportunities to intensify activated sludge processes, using plug flow reactors, such as the oscillatory baffled reactor, and membrane-based improvements. Oil-water separation can be a significant challenge, and there are a wide variety of intensified technologies that can be assessed from various other industries and the research literature. Downstream, chlorination would be an important unit operation, and there are opportunities here for technologies such as rotating packed beds to enhance this process by intensifying mass transfer, thereby substantially reducing the size and cost of chlorination units. “Hybrid” methods i.e. performing two or more unit operations in one step are a staple of PI: combined extraction of chemicals from waste material with simultaneous conversion to higher added value species e.g. direct conversion of lipids in oil-bearing waste to biodiesel. Another class of process intensification is the application of “active fields”. There are a wide variety of opportunities in the water industry, particularly in drying and dewatering, using e.g. radio frequency, microwave and rotational fields. There are also a range of possible technologies, for intensified destruction of persistent organics to meet future legislative targets in the water framework directive. For example, there are various technologies for the enhancement of ozone treatment of wastewaters by enhancing mass transfer, or via catalytic/photocatalytic treatments. The technologies surveyed will be principally evaluated in terms of their impact on success criteria, to be identified by the study. Importantly, the study will suggest further follow-on experimental studies in the areas identified as having the greatest potential to transform the industry i.e. where the technology is assessed to be a good fit to the defined problem and is relatively well-proven and where solving the problem has a significant impact on the overall process economics. The study will be desk-top based reviewing the principles of process intensification as applied in a range of industries including examples in the water/wastewater industry both in UK and globally. The prospects for applying PI techniques to the water/wastewater treatment industry will be evaluated including a literature study to determine the current position, with recent developments and emerging techniques/technologies that could be applied in the future. The current thinking within the industry concerning these opportunities will be determined. Identified intensification techniques will be evaluated in terms of its strengths/weaknesses and opportunities/risks that they may offer. This could include cost and sustainability benefits compared with more conventional treatment processes. Impacts on treatment quality should also be reviewed.
The Practicality of a PPM Approach for Managing Sewer Blockages
Specifically, the project will investigate the physical and operational factors which determine where blockages will occur. It will also investigate the time scales over which different types of blockages (i.e. fats oils and greases, sediment, etc) form and develop. This will provide companies with a basis for the design of affordable programmes of proactive sewer cleaning.
The project will address the following basic questions: (i) How random are blockage locations? (ii) What are the physical factors that determine where blockages are most likely to occur? (iiI) How long do different types of blockages take to form and grow?
Understanding the customers’ relationship with distribution pressure
1. Understand ‘tipping point’ where customers perceive low pressure 2. Identify the key issues for customers (non-domestic and domestic) 3. Clarify pressure management policy and practice of water companies 4. Identify how the key issues for customers can be addressed. 5. How best to manage pressure management schemes 6. How best to communicate with the customers 7. What education / information could be used to better manage the relationship with the customers
What level of pressure / variation in pressure leads the customer to believe they have an issue? What events do they experience that lead them to complain / enquire? What water use fittings / devices are impacted and how? How do such events impact on their quality of service? What is the inconvenience? What are their preferred alternatives for communication pre / during / post a pressure management scheme being implemented? What are their preferred alternatives for communication for other planned and un-planned events? What information does the customer find helpful in better understanding the relationship between “pressure” and their water use expectations?
Using sludge from enhanced anaerobic digestors to reduce the rate of phosphorus runnoff from farm slurry.
Some studies have shown that enhanced anaerobic digested sludge has the capacity to bind up additional orthophospahte with anions, such as calcium, naturally present in the sludge. Other limited studies have shown that phosphorus in farm slurries, in the form of soluble orthophosphate, is easily washed into local water courses during rainfall. We should test the effect of mixing enhanced anaerobic digested sludge with farm slurry before it is spread to land and monitor the resulting change in phosphorus runoff. This could then be part of a catchment solution to reducing phosphorus levels in failing WFD water bodies as an alternative to tightening phosphorus consents at WWTWs.
What is the typical levels of soluble P in farm slurries? Does it vary with different types of live stock? What effect does mixing advanced digested sludges with farm slurry have on soluble P concentrations in the resulting mixed sludge? How easily is this phosphorus washed out of the mixed sludgge when it is spread on land? What would be the impact on the resulting water courses and would this replace potentially tighter P discharge consents at WWTWs?
Wastewater Screenings Management
Alternative options for screenings disposal other than landfill. Business case with cost benefit analysis for each option showing the Whole Life Cost from Design, Build and Operate for 25 years. Implictions to the wider UK water industry.
1.) Categorisation of wastewater screenings – What is the quality and what are they made off – Volume, %DS, Type and Percentage, Calorific Value 2.) Product Condition and Possible solutions to improve its quality. What condition should we aspire to, recommended standard? 3.) Unit Cost / Lifecycle cost How much have we spent on transport and disposal historically and what is the forecast – CAPEX / OPEX 4.) Wider water industry Implementation
Data gathering for screenings information: Volume, %DS, Type and Percentage, Calorific Value. Current operational costs and volumes Desktop analysis: 1. Research screens handling and equipment including condition and quality of final product. 2. Alternative methods to reduce reuse/recycle screenings Research equipment available to achieve reduction/reuse/recycling methods including the WLC analysis
Water Resources Management Plan 2019 methods
This project will: • Take the ideas and recommendations developed as part of the Environment Agency’s WRMP 19 project forward where new techniques and approaches are needed. • Produce reports that can directly inform future planning guidance • Enable water companies and regulators to work together to improve WRMPs.
1 How best can Project WR27a ("A Manual of Source Yield Methodologies") be applied to the WRMP process, including the role of Levels of Service (LoS)? Provide options for a different way of dealing with LoS. 2 What does resilience mean for water company supply-demand planning and how it should be included? 3 What different approaches can be taken to options appraisal, encompassing decision frameworks, programme appraisal and best value as well as uncertainty, risk, scenarios and planning margins (towards Option 4 - real options/decision tree approach in the Environment Agency's report but considering elements of Option 5 - probabilistic methods)? 4 What do water companies really need in the tables to convince themselves as strategic planners, and their boards, as decision makers that they have a sound plan as well as giving confidence to customers and regulators? 5 What is the best way of linking drought plans with WRMPs and business plans? An overview of opportunities for greater integration with River Basin Management Plans (RBMPs) from a water company perspective (but excluding the current 5 year/6 year time cycle mismatch). We need to know how WRMP methods should change to work better for the industry and its regulators in future.
1 A literature review is not a significant element of the project as this has been done in EA scoping, but there should be some limited follow-up. 2 Desk studies. 3 Possible data purchase. 4 Possible sampling and analysis to gather data. 5 Case studies may be appropriate.
Welfare Reform and its impact on the collection of Water Charges
A comprehensive assessment of the welfare changes and how these will potentially impact the collection of water charges.
In taking note of the up to date plan for implementation of the reform programme assess the impact on collection rates for the water industry. In particular consider : - how likely claimants are to continue making payments - what approaches the industry should take with claimants and with other stakeholders - local government, social landlords, private landlords - how can systems be used to support the collection of money from benefit recipients given the plans to use e-commerce (possibly via community banks) to support the new plans for distributing benefits